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neurosciencestuff:

New York University biologists have identified a mechanism that helps explain how the diversity of neurons that make up the visual system is generated.

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“Our research uncovers a process that dictates both timing and cell survival in order to engender the heterogeneity of neurons used for vision,” explains NYU Biology Professor Claude Desplan, the study’s senior author.

The study’s other co-authors were: Claire Bertet, Xin Li, Ted Erclik, Matthieu Cavey, and Brent Wells—all postdoctoral fellows at NYU.

Their work, which appears in the latest issue of the journal Cell, centers on neurogenesis—the process by which neurons are created.

A central challenge in developmental neurobiology is to understand how progenitors—stem cells that differentiate to form one or more kinds of cells—produce the vast diversity of neurons, glia, and non-neuronal cells found in the adult Central Nervous System (CNS). Temporal patterning is one of the core mechanisms generating this diversity in both invertebrates and vertebrates. This process relies on the sequential expression of transcription factors into progenitors, each specifying the production of a distinct neural cell type.

In the Cell paper, the researchers studied the formation of the visual system of the fruit fly Drosophila. Their findings revealed that this process, which relies on temporal patterning of neural progenitors, is more complex than previously thought.

They demonstrate that in addition to specifying the production of distinct neural cell type over time, temporal factors also determine the survival or death of these cells as well as the mode of division of progenitors. Thus, temporal patterning of neural progenitors generates cell diversity in the adult visual system by specifying the identity, the survival, and the number of each unique neural cell type.

In the 1890s, when Freud was in the dawn of his career, he was struck by how many of his female patients were revealing childhood [sexual] victimization to him. Freud concluded that child sexual abuse was one of the major causes of emotional disturbances in adult women and wrote a brilliant and humane paper called “The Aetiology of Hysteria.” However, rather than receiving acclaim from his colleagues for his ground-breaking insights, Freud met with scorn. He was ridiculed for believing that men of excellent reputation (most of his patients came from upstanding homes) could be perpetrators of incest.
Within a few years, Freud buckled under this heavy pressure and recanted his conclusions. In their place he proposed the “Oedipus complex,” which became the foundation of modern psychology… Freud used this construct to conclude that the episodes of abuse his clients had revealed to him had never taken place; they were simply fantasies of events the women had wished for… This construct started a hundred-year history in the mental health field of blaming victims for the abuse perpetrated on them and outright discrediting of women’s and children’s reports of mistreatment by men.

― Lundy Bancroft

(via proletarianprincess)

read this carve it into your brains permanently etch it into your skulls r e a d  t h i s

(via miss-mizi)

   

arcadiaart:

Louis Sparre, “Girl in a Pink Dress” (1930).

Follow Arcadia Art on Wordpress.

buggirl:

This tarantula girl lives in my new lab.  Prior to joining the lab, I had heard numerous times, “how mean she is”.   Well, apparently that was bullshit.  She was totally docile about being handled, and she’s all cute with her bald butt (maybe her little ass is bald because no one pays any attention to her?! :) ).     Well, she was collected in Black Canyon, Arizona (north of Phoenix).  Our best species species guess is Aphonopelma chalcodes, the Arizona desert blonde tarantula.   If anyone is an expert on the tarantula family, I’d love to hear from you! 

Spread some spider-love to buggirl’s spider research here

The personality of a medical student can actually be quite similar to something like H5N1 influenza - Ever changing, ever evolving and always a possible threat to modern medicine. So be careful!
Another reminder about the changes one might face during the wild ride that is medical school. (via sterileplayground)    
Until I started taking my antidepressants, though, I didn’t actually know that I was depressed. I thought the dark staticky corners were part of who I was. It was the same way I felt before I put on my first pair of glasses at age 14 and suddenly realized that trees weren’t green blobs but intricate filigrees of thousands of individual leaves; I hadn’t known, before, that I couldn’t see the leaves, because I didn’t realize that seeing leaves was a possibility at all. And it wasn’t until I started using tools to counterbalance my depression that I even realized there was depression there to need counterbalancing. I had no idea that not everyone felt the gravitational pull of nothingness, the ongoing, slow-as-molasses feeling of melting down into a lump of clay. I had no way of knowing that what I thought were just my ingrained bad habits — not being able to deposit checks on time, not replying to totally pleasant emails for long enough that friendships were ruined, having silent meltdowns over getting dressed in the morning, even not going to the bathroom despite really, really, really having to pee — weren’t actually my habits at all. They were the habits of depression, which whoa, holy shit, it turns out I had a raging case of.

wapiti3:

The defense against ophidismo (snake venom) ;By Brazil, Vital on Flickr.

Publication info BRs.n [1911]
Contributing Library:
SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online
BioDiv. Library

signorcasaubon:

A statue of Saint Sebastian in an English church, by Sir Ninian Comper

I welcomed my slavish existence as a surgical resident, the never-ending work, the cries that kept me in the present, the immersion in blood, pus, and tears — the fluids in which one dissolved all traces of self. In working myself ragged, I felt integrated…